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Americans, and those fortunate English folk whose money and status permit them to go in freely for slang terms ...call the subject of these lines the 'flapper.' The appropriateness of this term does not move me to such whole-hearted admiration of the amazing powers of enriching our language which the Americans modestly acknowledge they possess ..., [and] in fact, would scarcely merit the honour of a moment of my attention, but for the fact that I seek in vain for any other expression that is understood to signify that important young person, the maiden of some sixteen years.The rise of the automobile was an important factor in flapper culture, as cars meant a woman could come and go as she pleased, travel to speakeasies and other entertainment venues, and use the large vehicles of the day for their popular activity, petting parties.In the United States, popular contempt for Prohibition was a factor in the rise of the flapper.By that time, the term had taken on the full meaning of the flapper generation style and attitudes.The use of the term coincided with a fashion among teenage girls in the United States in the early 1920s for wearing unbuckled galoshes, and a widespread false etymology held that they were called "flappers" because they flapped when they walked, as they wore their overshoes or galoshes unfastened, showing that they defied convention in a manner similar to the 21st century fad for untied shoelaces.Flapper independence was also a response to the Gibson girls of the 1890s. Scott Fitzgerald and Anita Loos and illustrators such as Russell Patterson, John Held, Jr., Ethel Hays and Faith Burrows popularized the flapper look and lifestyle through their works, and flappers came to be seen as attractive, reckless, and independent.
quite untrimmed, its plainness being relieved by a sash knotted carelessly around the skirt." By November 1910, the word was popular enough for A. James to begin a series of stories in the London Magazine featuring the misadventures of a pretty fifteen-year-old girl and titled "Her Majesty the Flapper".
She would be expected to keep a low profile on social occasions and ought not to be the object of male attention.
Although the word was still largely understood as referring to high-spirited teenagers In his lecture in February 1920 on Britain's surplus of young women caused by the loss of young men in war, Dr. Murray-Leslie criticized "the social butterfly type... the frivolous, scantily-clad, jazzing flapper, irresponsible and undisciplined, to whom a dance, a new hat, or a man with a car, were of more importance than the fate of nations".
One result of this was a profound change in manners and morals that made a freer and less restrained society. Time-worn prescriptions concerning what was or was not proper behavior for them no longer possessed much credibility, and taboos about unaccompanied appearances in public places, or the use of liquor or tobacco, or even pre-marital sexual relationships had lost their force. [W]omen were no longer as vulnerable to the tyranny of society as they had been [before]." One cause of the change in young women's behavior was World War I which ended in November 1918.
The death of large numbers of young men in the war, and the Spanish flu epidemic which struck in 1918 killing between 20–40 million people, inspired in young people a feeling that life is short and could end at any moment.